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The technology is published in the April 8 edition of Advanced Functional Materials. The design process involves three steps. First, a user makes a computer-aided design file with the shape of the robot. The user then paints the CAD file to show which directions the different joints of the soft robot will move.

3D VIDEO TECHNOLOGIES An Overview of Research Trends

A fast computer algorithm takes a few seconds to convert the CAD model into a 3D architected soft machine ASM that can be printed using any conventional 3D printer. The architected soft machines move like humans, except instead of muscles they rely on miniaturized motors that pull from nylon lines tied to the ends of their limbs. They can be squeezed and stretched to more than percent of their original length. The technology is patented through the Purdue Office of Technology Commercialization.

The researchers are looking for partners to test and commercialize their technology. Materials provided by Purdue University. Note: Content may be edited for style and length. Bakkt wants to make mainstream institutions less skeptical of digital assets.

3D Video Technologies: An Overview of Research Trends

And it is betting that this will open the door to a much larger future marketplace for them—one that serves consumers in addition to financial institutions. Keep up with the fast-moving and sometimes baffling world of cryptocurrencies and blockchains with our weekly newsletter Chain Letter. Subscribe here. Mike Orcutt. Advances in longevity medicine may be coming. What are the challenges and opportunities of a world in which people live longer and healthier lives? Climate Week.

Silicon Valley 2h. Facebook is buying a startup that makes a wristband to control computers with a twitch. Image CTRL-labs. Computing 4h. A cybercriminal group is hijacking high-profile YouTube channels. Image Kon Karampelas Unsplash. In this technology, a mechanism is used to block light from each appropriate eye when the converse eye's image is projected on the screen.

The technology originated with the Eclipse Method, in which the projector alternates between left and right images, and opens and closes the shutters in the glasses or viewer in synchronization with the images on the screen. Glasses containing liquid crystal that will let light through in synchronization with the images on the cinema, television or computer screen, using the concept of alternate-frame sequencing. A drawback of this method is the need for each person viewing to wear expensive, electronic glasses that must be synchronized with the display system using a wireless signal or attached wire.

The shutter-glasses are heavier than most polarized glasses, though lighter models are no heavier than some sunglasses or deluxe polarized glasses. Liquid crystal light valves work by rotating light between two polarizing filters. Due to these internal polarizers, LCD shutter-glasses darken the display image of any LCD, plasma, or projector image source, which has the result that images appear dimmer and contrast is lower than for normal non-3D viewing. This is not necessarily a usage problem; for some types of displays which are already very bright with poor grayish black levels , LCD shutter glasses may actually improve the image quality.

Dolby 3D uses specific wavelengths of red, green, and blue for the right eye, and different wavelengths of red, green, and blue for the left eye.

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Glasses which filter out the very specific wavelengths allow the wearer to see a 3D image. This technology eliminates the expensive silver screens required for polarized systems such as RealD , which is the most common 3D display system in theaters. It does, however, require much more expensive glasses than the polarized systems.

It is also known as spectral comb filtering or wavelength multiplex visualization. The use of more spectral bands per eye eliminates the need to color process the image, required by the Dolby system. Evenly dividing the visible spectrum between the eyes gives the viewer a more relaxed "feel" as the light energy and color balance is nearly Like the Dolby system, the Omega system can be used with white or silver screens.

But it can be used with either film or digital projectors, unlike the Dolby filters that are only used on a digital system with a color correcting processor provided by Dolby. Omega Optical's 3D system contains projection filters and 3D glasses. In addition to the passive stereoscopic 3D system, Omega Optical has produced enhanced anaglyph 3D glasses.

In this method, glasses are not necessary to see the stereoscopic image. Lenticular lens and parallax barrier technologies involve imposing two or more images on the same sheet, in narrow, alternating strips, and using a screen that either blocks one of the two images' strips in the case of parallax barriers or uses equally narrow lenses to bend the strips of image and make it appear to fill the entire image in the case of lenticular prints.

To produce the stereoscopic effect, the person must be positioned so that one eye sees one of the two images and the other sees the other. Both images are projected onto a high-gain, corrugated screen which reflects light at acute angles. In order to see the stereoscopic image, the viewer must sit within a very narrow angle that is nearly perpendicular to the screen, limiting the size of the audience. Lenticular was used for theatrical presentation of numerous shorts in Russia from — [56] and in for the feature-length film Robinson Crusoe.

Though its use in theatrical presentations has been rather limited, lenticular has been widely used for a variety of novelty items and has even been used in amateur 3D photography. Other examples for this technology include autostereoscopic LCD displays on monitors, notebooks, TVs, mobile phones and gaming devices, such as the Nintendo 3DS.

Some viewers have complained of headaches and eyestrain after watching 3D films.

There are two primary effects of 3D film that are unnatural for human vision: crosstalk between the eyes, caused by imperfect image separation, and the mismatch between convergence and accommodation, caused by the difference between an object's perceived position in front of or behind the screen and the real origin of that light on the screen. This nullifies or greatly decreases immersion effects of digital stereo to them. It has recently been discovered that each of the rods and cones in animal eyes can measure the distance to the point on the object that is in focus at the particular rod or cone.

The lens selects the point on the object for each pixel to which the distance is measured; that is, humans can see in 3D separately with each eye. The French National Research Agency ANR has sponsored multidisciplinary research in order to understand the effects of 3D film viewing, its grammar, and its acceptance. Most of the cues required to provide humans with relative depth information are already present in traditional 2D films. For example, closer objects occlude further ones, distant objects are desaturated and hazy relative to near ones, and the brain subconsciously "knows" the distance of many objects when the height is known e.

In fact, only two of these depth cues are not already present in 2D films: stereopsis or parallax and the focus of the eyeball accommodation. However, promising results from research aimed at overcoming this shortcoming were presented at the Stereoscopic Displays and Applications conference in San Jose, U. Film critic Mark Kermode [81] argued that 3D adds "not that much" value to a film, and said that, while he liked Avatar , the many impressive things he saw in the film had nothing to do with 3D. Kermode has been an outspoken critic of 3D film describing the effect as a "nonsense" and recommends using two right or left lenses from the 3D glasses to cut out the "pointy, pointy 3D stereoscopic vision", although this technique still does not improve the huge brightness loss from a 3D film.

The depth perception this affords is only noticeable near to the head — at about arms length. It is only useful for such tasks as threading a needle. It follows that in films portraying real life, where nothing is ever shown so close to the camera, the 3D effect is not noticeable and is soon forgotten as the film proceeds. Director Christopher Nolan has criticised the notion that traditional film does not allow depth perception, saying "I think it's a misnomer to call it 3D versus 2D. The whole point of cinematic imagery is it's three dimensional Late film critic Roger Ebert repeatedly criticized 3D film as being "too dim", sometimes distracting or even nausea-inducing, and argued that it is an expensive technology that adds nothing of value to the film-going experience since 2-D films already provide a sufficient illusion of 3D.

Some of this loss may be compensated by running the projector's bulb at higher power or using more powerful bulbs. As of [update] , there is no official standard for 3D brightness. According to the industry de facto standard, however, the "acceptable brightness range" goes as low as 3.

The Future of 3D Printing

Among others, Christopher Nolan has criticized the huge brightness loss: "You're not that aware of it because once you're 'in that world,' your eye compensates, but having struggled for years to get theaters up to the proper brightness, we're not sticking polarized filters in everything. Another major criticism is that many of the films in the 21st century to date were not filmed in 3D, but converted into 3-D after filming. Filmmakers who have criticized the quality of this process include James Cameron whose film Avatar was created mostly in 3D from the ground up, with some portions of the film created in 2D, [91] and is largely credited with the revival of 3D and Michael Bay.

In contrast, computer-animated films for which the original computer models are still available can be rendered in 3D easily, as the depth information is still available and does not need to be inferred or approximated. This has been done with Toy Story , among others.

3D VIDEO TECHNOLOGIES An Overview of Research Trends

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about motion pictures that enhance the illusion of depth perception, as opposed to the traditional motion pictures displayed on flat 2D screens. For motion pictures created using 3D modeling software , see computer-generated imagery. For motion pictures created using stereophotogrammetry, see volumetric video. Film made in three dimensions. Cinematography Principal photography Videography Shooting script Film inventory report Daily call sheet Production report Daily production report Daily progress report Daily editor log Sound report Cost report.

Distribution Film release wide limited delayed. Related topics. Film history Filmography Guerrilla filmmaking. Glossary of motion picture terms. See also. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. See also: Stereoscopy. Main article: Stereo photography techniques.

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