Managers of extension programmes are painfully aware of the need for revision and development of the new skill sets held by today's high performers.
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If change is not handled correctly, it can be more devastating then ever before. High performers reflect, discover, assess, and act. They know that a new focus on connecting the heads, hearts, and hands of people in their organization is necessary. Astute managers know what needs to be done but struggle with how to do it. Quite often they prefer to consider themselves as teachers or communicators rather than managers. This results in under-utilization of the increasing amount of literature on management theory and practice.
The root of the problem is implementation. They must learn how to motivate others and build an efficient team. More formally defined, management is the process by which people, technology, job tasks, and other resources are combined and coordinated so as to effectively achieve organizational objectives.
A process or function is a group of related activities contributing to a larger action. Management functions are based on a common philosophy and approach. They centre around the following: 1.
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Developing and clarifying mission, policies, and objectives of the agency or organization 2. Establishing formal and informal organizational structures as a means of delegating authority and sharing responsibilities 3. Setting priorities and reviewing and revising objectives in terms of changing demands 4. Maintaining effective communications within the working group, with other groups, and with the larger community 5.
Selecting, motivating, training, and appraising staff 6. Securing funds and managing budgets; evaluating accomplishments and 7. Being accountable to staff, the larger enterprise, and to the community at large Waldron, b. It is the process of determining in advance what should be accomplished, when, by whom, how, and at what cost. Regardless of whether it is planning long-term program priorities or planning a two-hour meeting, the planning aspect of management is the major contributor to success and productivity.
Stated simply, "If you don't know where you are going, then you won't know when you have arrived! It involves choosing a course of action from available alternatives. Planning is the process of determining organizational aims, developing premises about the current environment, selecting the course of action, initiating activities required to transform plans into action, and evaluating the outcome. The types of planning that managers engage in will depend on their level in the organization and on the size and type of the organization.
Generally there are four major types of planning exercises: strategic, tactical, contingency, and managerial. Strategic planning involves determining organizational goals and how to achieve them. This usually occurs at the top management level. Tactical planning is concerned with implementing the strategic plans and involves middle and lower management. Contingency planning anticipates possible problems or changes that may occur in the future and prepares to deal with them effectively as they arise Marshall, Managerial planning is usually considered as microlevel planning. It helps in combining resources to fulfil the overall objectives of the extension organization.
A needs assessment may initiate a need for developing a plan. The planning process begins with the creation of a philosophy that consists of statements describing the values, beliefs, and attitudes of the organization.
Its mission statement is a proclamation of its purpose or reason for being. After the philosophy and mission statements have been established, various goals and objectives are defined. Goals are usually general statements that project what is to be accomplished in the future. An objective is a concrete statement describing a specific action. Policies are predetermined guides to decision making; they establish boundaries or limits within which action may be taken. Managers are related to policy formation in two ways.
First, they play a crucial role in implementing organizational policies that have been established by higher management. Second, they create policies within their departments as guides for their own work groups. Procedures outline the series of steps to be followed when carrying out a designed policy or taking a particular course of action. Rules are used to provide final and definite instruction. Usually they are inflexible.
Planning is designing the future, anticipating problems, and imagining success.
In short, planning is essential for anyone who wants to survive. The functions of organizing, leading, staffing, and budgeting are means of carrying out the decisions of planning. Everyone is a planner - a planner of meals, of work time, Of vacations, of families. Formal planning, however, distinguishes managers from non-managers, effective managers from ineffective managers. Formal planning forces managers to think of the future, to set priorities, to encourage creativity, to articulate clear objectives, and to forecast the future in terms of anticipated problems and political realities.
Long-Range Planning Long-range planning is vitally important in that it focuses attention on crucial future issues which are vitally important to the organization. It involves studying societal trends and issues, surveying current and anticipated learners' needs, and being aware of long-term research directions and changes in technology.
Many extension workers may think that such management is beyond their level of authority, control, or involvement. They may feel that such management is the prerogative of the director, the deputy minister, or the president. However, while senior levels of management must be involved, those who implement the objectives resulting from long-range planning should also be involved. Strategic Planning Strategic planning has been defined as that which has to do with determining the basic objectives of an organization and allocating resources to their accomplishment.
A strategy determines the direction in which an organization needs to move to fulfil its mission. A strategic plan acts as a road map for carrying out the strategy and achieving long-term results. Occasionally a large gap exists between the strategic plan and real results. To boost organizational performance, people must be a key part of the strategy. A stronger, more capable and efficient organization can arise by defining how its members can support the overall strategy Figure 1. Strategic planning is different from long-term planning.
Long-range planning builds on current goals and practices and proposes modifications for the future. Strategic planning, however, considers changes or anticipated changes in the environment that suggest more radical moves away from current practices. When doing strategic planning, the organization should emphasize team planning. By involving those affected by the plan, the manger builds an organization wide understanding and commitment to the strategic plan Flemming, The strength and resilience of the traditional rural and farm population and the trend towards a decentralized society with more and more urbanites moving to the country suggest that successful rural communities will depend on people's ability to change, to adapt, and to work toward a better future.
In the s, facilitating farmer participation is a major extension activity Chambers, Reorganization provides a framework for longer-term commitment to rural development. Organizations and sub units are being encouraged to put work teams in place to ensure that each sector integrates staff and services into a cohesive, focused business unit.
Consultation and participation are believed to be essential for the successful development and implementation of organizational goals and objectives. Each work team is asked to develop an effective process for discussion of major challenges and opportunities facing the organization, if possible, over the next decade.
Updated strategic plans are then developed. These plans form the framework for focusing organizational resources on the most strategic areas by using a staged approach. Updated plans are then implemented by work teams at all levels of management. Work-team objectives include: 1. Involving all levels of staff in consultation 2. Designing and implementing a process to develop-goals and objectives for the organization and unit; a strategic process for the next five to ten years 3. Defining and clarifying organizational structures and identifying functions, customers, and service delivery models 4.
Identifying changes and staged approaches needed to move from the current situation to what will be required over the next three to five years 5. Identifying and recommending priorities for policy and programme development 6. Incorporating goals for expenditure reduction, service quality improvement, workforce management, accountability, technology, and business process improvement 7.
Stating the start date and first report date Figure 1. Managerial Planning If long-range planning can be linked to "macro," then managerial planning can be linked to "micro. Managerial planning focuses on the activity of a specific unit and involves what needs to be done, by whom, when, and at what cost. The strategic planning process serves as an umbrella over the management planning process which deals with the following: 1.
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Establishing individual goals and objectives 2. Forecasting results and potential problems 3. Developing alternatives, selecting alternatives, and setting priorities 4. Developing associated budgets 5. Establishing personnel inputs 6. Establishing specific policies related to the unit 7. Allocating physical resources 8. Appraising how the management unit has succeeded in meeting its goals and objectives Decision making Closely related to both strategic and managerial planning is the process of decision making. Decisions need to be made wisely under varying circumstances with different amounts of knowledge about alternatives and consequences.
Decisions are concerned with the future and may be made under conditions of certainty, conditions of risk, or conditions of uncertainty. Under conditions of certainty, managers have sufficient or complete information and know exactly what the outcome of their decision will be. Managers are usually faced with a less certain environment. They may, however, know the probabilities and possible outcomes of their decisions, even though they cannot guarantee which particular outcome will actually occur.
In such cases, there is a risk associated with the decision and there is a possibility of an adverse outcome. Most managerial decisions involve varying degrees of uncertainty. This is a key part of a manager's activities. They must decide what goals or opportunities will be pursued, what resources are available, and who will perform designated tasks. Decision making, in this context, is more than making up your mind.
It consists of several steps: Step 1: Identifying and defining the problem Step 2: Developing various alternatives Step 3: Evaluating alternatives Step 4: Selecting an alternative Step 5: Implementing the alternative Step 6: Evaluating both the actual decision and the decision-making process Managers have to vary their approach to decision making, depending on the particular situation and person or people involved. The above steps are not a fixed procedure, however; they are more a process, a system, or an approach.
They force one to realize that there are usually alternatives and that one should not be pressured into making a quick decision without looking at the implications. This is especially true in the case of nonprogrammed decisions complex and novel decisions as contrasted to programmed decisions those that are repetitive and routine. One of the most difficult steps in the decision-making process is to develop the various alternatives. For example, if one is involved in planning a workshop, one of the most crucial decisions is the time, format, and location of the workshop. In this case, one's experience as well as one's understanding of the clientele group greatly influence the selecting of alternatives.
Often decision trees can help a manager make a series of decisions involving uncertain events. A decision tree is a device that displays graphically the various actions that a manager can take and shows how those actions will relate to the attainment of future events. Each branch represents an alternative course of action. To make a decision tree it is necessary to: 1 identify the points of decision and alternatives available at each point, 2 identify the points of uncertainty and the type or range of alternative outcomes at each point, 3 estimate the probabilities of different events or results of action and the costs and gains associated with these actions, and 4 analyse the alternative values to choose the next course of action.
In extension, the decision-making process is often a group process. Consequently, the manager must apply principles of democratic decision making since those involved in the decision-making process will feel an interest in the results of the process. In such a case, the manager becomes more of a coach, knowing the mission, objectives, and the process, but involving those players who must help in actually achieving the goal.
The effective manager thus perceives himself or herself as the controller of the decision-making process rather than as the maker of the organization's or agency's decision. As Drucker has pointed out, "The most common source of mistakes in management decision-making is the emphasis on finding the right answer rather than the right question. It is not enough to find the right answer; more important and more difficult is to make effective the course of action decided upon. Management is not concerned with knowledge for its own sake; it is concerned with performance.
Organizing is the process of establishing formal relationships among people and resources in order to reach specific goals and objectives. The process, according to Marshall , is based on five organizing principles: unity of command, span of control, delegation of authority, homogeneous assignment, and flexibility.
The organizing process involves five steps: determining the tasks to be accomplished, subdividing major tasks into individual activities, assigning specific activities to individuals, providing necessary resources, and designing the organizational relationships needed. In any organizing effort, managers must choose an appropriate structure.
Organizational structure is represented primarily by an organizational chart. It specifies who is to do what and how it will be accomplished. The organizing stage provides directions for achieving the planning results.
There are several aspects to organizing - time, structures, chain of command, degree of centralization, and role specification. Time Management Managers must decide what to do, when, where, how, and by or with whom. Time management is the process of monitoring, analysing, and revising your plan until it works. Effective planning is a skill that takes time to acquire. It is difficult to implement because you have no one but yourself to monitor how effectively you are using your time.
Everyone has the same amount of time - hours per week. How that time is managed is up to the discretion of each person. One extension agent joked that he was so busy taking time management courses, he had little time left to manage. Effective time management involves philosophy and common sense. Time is not a renewable resource - once it is gone, it is gone forever. To function effectively, managers have to be able to prioritize and replace less important tasks with more important ones. Most of us work for pay for only 1, hours per year.
Effective and efficient time management encourages us to achieve and be productive while developing good employee relations. Once the goals are known, it is important to think about how they can be achieved. Effective time managers facilitate planning by listing tasks that require their attention, estimating the amount of time each task will take to complete, and prioritizing them - deciding what tasks are most important to do first and numbering them in rank order.
It is essential to know what is crucial and what is not. Some activities have relatively low levels of importance in completing a given task.https://ulokumugamaz.tk
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By planning ahead, managers can decide what to do and take the time to come up with ideas on how to do it. They can make their own list of steps to eliminate or reduce time wasters. Maintaining a daily "To Do" list with priorities attached and maintaining a daily, weekly, monthly, and yearly diary is helpful. Managers should analyse their daily activities to see which are directed toward results and which are simply activities.
They could learn how to manage meetings more effectively since considerable management time seems to be wasted in nondirectional formal meetings. For example, 80 per cent of the complaining in your department is likely to be done by 20 per cent of your staff. The course includes a review of the conceptual frameworks used to guide current services, interventions, prevention efforts, and policies aimed at remedying and eliminating violence against children in our society.
Examines the political, social, legal, ethical, spiritual, and public health issues and the perspectives of people living with HIV infection and AIDS that are needed to inform practice and policy. Focuses on the etiology, prevalence, and policy implications of common addictive behaviors, including alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs; pathological gambling; and compulsive overeating or sexual behavior. Students will learn to evaluate the pharmacological mechanisms of dependence, components of addiction-related behavioral change, and issues involved in prevention, intervention, and evaluation of these addictive behaviors.
The course will also examine the impact of age, race, gender, social class, culture, ethnicity, spirituality, religion, sexual orientation, national origin, and physical and mental ability on patterns of addiction.
Content includes major theoretical perspectives on biological, sociological, and psychological bases for addiction and the impetus for change, and an examination of the empirical evidence for various perspectives. Provides a framework of knowledge, values, skills, and experiences for spiritually sensitive social work. Students develop skills and insight into responding competently and ethically to diverse spiritual and religious perspectives in social work settings with individuals, organizations, and communities.
Attention given to collaboration with faith-based organizations, as spirituality enters into the dimension of policy and service delivery and "secular" and "spiritual" come together to address human need in society. Attention also given to both micro and macro aspects of social work. This course is a survey of issues and attitudes associated with human sexuality. It is primarily intended for social workers and other helping professionals who currently work with clients or plan to in the future.
Using a biopsychosocial perspective, emphasis will be placed on the social, cultural, familial and individual differences in sexual and reproductive attitudes, values, and behavior. Students will be introduced to common sex-related issues and to the particular concerns of various sexually oppressed groups. Information will also be provided about childhood sexual abuse and its relationship to the intimacy issues that clients typically present in direct practice.
Introduces students to the ways that theory and evidence are used to guide intervention with individuals, families, and groups. Focuses on the ways that effective direct practice intervention must integrate different sources of knowledge: evidence what has worked in the past with people with similar problems , theory frames of reference for understanding how problems are generated and solved , clinical wisdom, and client preferences.
Students will learn straightforward rubrics for locating and evaluating research evidence that may be used to generate intervention possibilities. Students will study and critique several key intervention theories and models psychodynamic, cognitive, behavioral, family systems, group work and apply them to case materials. Finally, the class will explore processes and problems that cut across direct practice models, such as the enhancement of change motivation.
This course provides an overview of older adults as a population group and of aging as a biopsychosocial process. The course explores aspects of social services and health care systems intended to help individuals, families, and communities confront aging-related challenges and capitalize upon aging-related strengths. The physical, psychological, social, and cultural dimensions of adolescence in today's culture, with focus on advanced direct practice with typical problems of adolescents.
Particular attention paid to high-risk groups. Pre- or corequisite: Theories and skills of direct clinical practice are applied at an advanced level for individuals, families, and groups in health care settings. Skills of crisis intervention, case management, and professional practice as part of an interdisciplinary team are addressed.
Contemporary interventions with clients who have severe psychiatric disorders and their families, in institutional and community settings. Intervention techniques with the more severe and chronic forms of psychiatric disorder, as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, text revision DSM-IV-TR ; psychotropic medications; case management; the treatment orientations to care; and special issues in work with children and adolescents. Focuses on children ages birth to 18 , and the ways their development and circumstance as a dependent population affect the well-being of individuals and communities.
As children generally reside in families, various family forms and risk statuses will be examined with a focus on anti-oppressive social work practice. Emphasis is on assessment of developmental aspects of child well-being and aspects of family well-being with a broad and diverse definition of family ; identification of risks, strengths, and resiliency factors; and sociological and psychological knowledge of how family and community contexts affect children.
Intervention modalities include direct work with children and their families, case management, promotion of resilience, crisis intervention work with community service systems, and the use of the legal system. Advanced practice with family systems, with emphasis on a systems-analytical perspective that includes environing systems, as well as internal dynamics of the family system. Differential use of the major theoretical approaches in family therapy. Emphasis on a social work framework and on such traditional family social work techniques as advocacy, brokerage, and provision of concrete services.
Advanced direct practice with children and adolescents, in the context of public school setting, individually, in groups and with their families. Emphasis on the role of the school social worker in a host setting that is bound by governmental statutes and regulations and on relationships with teachers and school administrators, with other members of the professional team, and with community agencies and groups.
This course is a direct practice elective course that can be taken after the successful completion of the professional foundation course work. Enrollment in Advance Direct Practice I is a pre- or co-requisite. A continuation of content taught in , this course focuses on various approaches to the evaluation, intervention, measurement, treatment, and relapse prevention of common addictive disorders, including those resulting from substance misuse, problem gambling, and compulsive overeating or sexual behavior.
Evaluation of the biopsychosocial etiological factors that bear on the formation of addictive behavior patterns, as well as erroneous thinking patterns and cognitive triggers that lead to habituating these patterns over time. Instructs students on utilizing measures for screening, conducting diagnostic evaluations using motivational interviewing and stages of change, formulating a treatment plan, and conducting session-by-session treatment for various DSM-IV-TR-based addictive disorders.
Students will also learn necessary components for post-treatment relapse prevention and considerations in pretreatment intervention. Examines the impact of age, race, gender, social class, culture, ethnicity, spirituality, religion, sexual orientation, national origin, and physical and mental ability on recovery from addictive disorders. Prerequisites: , and pre- or corequisite: This course examines social work practice theories and intervention approaches and skills as they apply to practice with childhood and adult survivors of physical, sexual and other forms of abuse and trauma.
Particular attention will be made to the use of engagement, assessment, planning, intervention, evaluation and follow up on the micro, mezzo, and macro levels of practice. An emphasis will also be placed on diversity and use of social work ethics and values when working with survivors of abuse and trauma. Prerequisite: Successful completion of generalist curriculum courses.
Examines social work practice theories, multidimensional assessment, and intervention approaches and skills as they apply to practice with older adults and their families. Diversity among older people will be emphasized, including discussion of the lifelong integration of personal experiences and client populations that range from well elders to older adults and their families who are facing end-of-life issues. Late-life opportunities, transitions, and challenges will be addressed.
Implications for policy that impacts older persons will also be included. Core theories, dynamics, functions, and ethics of human resource management in nonprofit and public human services organizations are analyzed with particular focus on the knowledge, skills, and abilities necessary to successfully recruit, retain, and develop the workforce necessary to achieve the mission of an organization. The substantive areas covered in this course include industry standard human resource policies and procedures in the areas of staff recruitment and selection; developing classification and compensation systems; establishing employee performance standards and conducting performance evaluations; developing and supporting a diverse workforce; employee and organized labor relations; maintaining a safe, discrimination- and harassment-free workplace; training and professional development; and strategic human resource planning.
This course will explore the developmental stage of adolescence approximately from ages 12—19 years , with a specific focus on how at-risk youth populations navigate the normative tasks associated with this stage. In this course, students will learn to apply this strength-based, brief model of treatment to assist adults, children, couples and families to discover their own resilience and problem solving abilities.
Although the focus of this course will be on clinical practice, implications for case management as well as intervening with larger systems, such as agencies and communities will also be addressed. Core theories, dynamics, functions, policies, and ethics associated with the management of private and public child welfare services are analyzed and examined with particular focus on the knowledge, skills, and competencies necessary to successfully lead organizations providing such services in the environment of today and the future. Emphasis is on the adaptation of generic external public and community relations, media, and legislative relations, etc.
Pre- or corequisites: , or Overview of fiscal responsibilities of social agency executives. The accounting process, financial statements, budgeting, internal controls, audits, tax compliance, and fund accounting. Analysis of supervisory roles in human service organizations. Covers the three functions of supervision - supportive, educational and administrative. Course designed primarily for the first line supervisor but covers concepts and theories applicable to general supervision and management.
Introduction to current strategies and procedures for identifying, obtaining, and maintaining a diverse portfolio of social service funding sources; review of methodologies for packaging, marketing, and selling program proposals to social service funders and consumers. This course will cover elements of play therapy, which consists of the systematic use of theoretical models to establish an interpersonal process wherein social workers use the therapeutic powers of play to help children prevent or resolve psychosocial challenges and achieve optimal growth and development. The course is grounded in knowledge about trauma and will consist of basic principles of intervention as well as guidelines for assessment and treatment of traumatized children.
Expressive therapies such as art, play genograms and other nonverbal and symbolic techniques which enable children to externalize and process overwhelming experiences in a nonthreatening way will be covered. MSW Coursework and Syllabi. Generalist Curriculum Courses All students, except those with baccalaureate degrees from programs accredited by the Council on Social Work Education, are required to take all of the generalist curriculum courses. Specialized Curriculum The specialized curriculum consists of a specialization in a method of advanced practice, an advanced research course, advanced field instruction, and electives.
Course Clinical Social Work I 3 Focuses on advanced social work, clinical and client advocacy skills and techniques at each stage of the helping process, and with difficult practice situations as these apply to individuals, client groups, couples, and family systems. Electives Three general elective courses are required to complete the MSW program. Course Social Work with Latinos This course examines aspects of service delivery to Hispanic populations at both the macro and micro levels. Amazon Global Store US International products have separate terms, are sold from abroad and may differ from local products, including fit, age ratings, and language of product, labeling or instructions.
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