Pollard , Henk Schat. The accumulation and fractionation of Rare Earth Elements in hydroponically grown Phytolacca americana L.
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Stoichiometric mechanisms of Dicranopteris dichotoma growth and resistance to nutrient limitation in the Zhuxi watershed in the red soil hilly region of China Zhiqiang Chen , Zhibiao Chen , Xinyu Yan , Liyue Bai. Photosynthetic characterization of a rolled leaf mutant of rice Oryza sativa L. Photosystem 2 photochemistry and pigment composition of Dicranopteris dichotoma Bernh under different irradiances Wang Lifeng , Ji Hong-bing , Tian Weimin. References Publications referenced by this paper. Effects of rare earth element lanthanum on the activities of invertase, catalase and dehydrogenase in red soil.
Chu , J. Zhu , Z.
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Effects of lanthanum on the microflora of red soil. Chu , Z. Xie , J. Journal of the Chinese Rare Earth Society, 22, In Chinese [ 15 ] Wu, S. In Chinese [ 16 ] Yan, C. Tsinghua Science and Technology, 11, Journal of Rare Earths, 30, Journal of the Chinese Rare Earth Society, 31, In Chinese [ 19 ] Liao, C. Journal of Rare Earths, 31, Separation and Purification Technology, , Journal of Rare Earths, 32, Share This Article:. The paper is not in the journal. Go Back HomePage. DOI: Furthermore, based on the term together with mass balance and extraction equilibrium, the conditions where a given countercurrent extraction separation operation can have minimum amounts of both extracting solvent and scrubbing agent solution can be estimated, and the equations of the two minimum amounts can be deduced.
It was found that the equations for a two-component separation using a single aqueous or organic feed are exactly the same as they appeared in the theory initially established in s. Unlike its earlier version, the present derivation does not involve feed-stage-composition hypothesis, and also has the advantage of dealing with a double-feed system where both aqueous and organic feeds are simultaneously employed whereas the earlier theory can only analyze a separation using a single aqueous or organic feed.
Conflicts of Interest The authors declare no conflicts of interest. Cite this paper Cheng, F. Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry , 4 , References [ 1 ] Xu, G. Comprised of national laboratories, universities and companies at the forefront of REM research, CMI brings a four-tiered approach to tackling advanced rare-earth projects, focusing on the development of more efficient separations, recovery and recycling processes, and alternative materials that can potentially serve as REM substitutes, as well as bringing end-of-life awareness to manufacturers whose products utilize rare-earth metals.
While commercial technologies do exist for recovering REMs, these processes have some shortcomings. The economy of these technologies is also highly dependent on the market value for the recovered metals, as in the case of recycling cerium from automotive catalysts or fluidized catalytic cracking FCC catalysts.
CMI is developing a number of processes for recovering REMs from various sources, including electronics waste, phosphor powders from fluorescent lighting and LEDs and permanent magnets from computer disc drives and wind turbines. In one CMI project, a supercritical-fluids process selectively extracts rare-earth metals from the phosphor powders, which also contain mercury. CMI has demonstrated and is licensing the process, and expects to see full-scale realization of the project in 2.
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This extraction process sets itself apart from other rare-earth recovery techniques in that a more dilute stream can be used for extraction. A dispersion-free, supported, liquid-membrane solvent-extraction process separates and recovers REMs, such as yttrium, europium, praseodymium and neodymium, from permanent magnets and halophosphate phosphors.
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Operating under non-equilibrium conditions, the extraction process overcomes the stability issues arising due to the gradual loss of extractant in normal solvent-extraction processes. Other REM-recovery projects in development at CMI include recovery of indium and REOs from thin-film plasma display panels, recovery of overspray from coating processes, bioleaching using microorganisms and biosorption in an aqueous solution.
Since most of their processes utilize components of discarded consumer products, CMI recognizes that the ability to readily recover and recycle REMs begins with the initial manufacture of the product. Involving manufacturers, and emphasizing the importance of end-of-life considerations in manufacturing processes, eases the complexities of recycling these materials. For instance, if disc drives are manufactured so that the magnets are easily removable, recycling the REMs contained within becomes a much less labor-intensive task.
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This will benefit the manufacturers, as well, through the increased availability of recycled REMs, while decreasing the dependence on virgin materials. Rare-earth metals contained in permanent magnets can be recovered via high-temperature electrolysis. Here, the REMs present in the magnets typically Nd, but also dysprosium, praseodymium or terbium are anodically dissolved in the form of rare-earth ions, which will deposit at the cathode as rare-earth alloys.
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Other elements present such as transition metals will remain at the anode as sludge. In addition to end-of-life Nd-containing magnets, the recycling process can be supplemented with the use of scrap from the manufacture of new magnets. The output material is subsequently fed into a high-temperature electrolysis process to produce a mixture of REMs, which can be used in new battery electrodes. Like CMI, Sintef recognizes the challenges associated with rare-earth recycling, emphasizing the importance of implementing efficient systems for obtaining usable REM-containing scrap.
On the commercial front, some companies are developing REM-recycling processes. In France, Solvay S. Fons site, the phosphor powders are separated from glass and other components and suspended in an aqueous solution. In solution, the phosphor powders undergo a chemical reaction, further concentrating the REMs. After separating out the liquid and drying, the remaining REM-concentrate powder is then sent to another site, La Rochelle, which specializes in rare-earth purification.
It was reported that the company can process several kilograms of magnets per day using this technology.